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After nearly two million years, the last great Ice Age ended about 11,700 years ago. Two-thirds of Ohio had been buried under glaciers, which scoured and shaped the landscape and then covered it with thick layers of glacial till, comprised of sands, gravel, and clay.
In contrast, a third of the state where the ice didn't reach remained a rugged, wrinkled land, providing an entirely different home for plant and animal life. Humans have impacted these landscapes as well clearing, draining, and reshaping the land to make way for farms, industries, and homes.
Today, the Ohio landscape features five physiographic regions, each with its own geological profile and distinct communities of plants and animals.